Tones of Pictures, Most Commons and Mnemonics

Thursday, June 14, 2007

Schistocytes aka aka aka

Red cell fragmentation
Helmet cells

Schistocytes are fragmented red blood cells, and indicate mechanical damage causing hemolysis. The commonest cause is probably the presence of a mechanical heart valve, particularly when dysfunctional. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura, and Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation are other causes.

Wednesday, June 13, 2007

Intestinal rotation

This the best animation can possibly find.

Remember: abnormal rotation results in intestinal malrotation with sypmtoms of obstruction and volvulus(intestinal ischemia due to twisting). Cecum is found in the right upper quadrant, fixed to the second portion of the duodenum.

Tuesday, June 12, 2007

ELISA test

ELISA seems very easy, but usually students make mistakes on the exam. This animation shows the test step by step. There are direct and indirect ELISA. Tip to remember. In direct both antibodies bind directly to the antigen.

Thursday, June 07, 2007


This is a very nice picture showing the regions and layers of the stomach.
Erosions, by definition, don't penetrate the muscularis mucosa.

Zinc Zinc Zinc

Acrodermatitis enteropathica:
1. Inborn error of zinc metabolism that is inherited as an autosomal recessive disorder
2. Zinc deficiency
symptoms: periorificial and acral dermatitis, growth retardation, hypogonadism, diarrhea, behavioral changes, and neurologic disturbances.
Acrodermatitis enteropathica links:

Wednesday, June 06, 2007

HBV genome replication

HBV genome replication always make me confused, but with the next animation, it is easier to understand the conception.

Herpes Simplex Infection

Schematic representation of herpes simplex virus infection - animated:

Tuesday, June 05, 2007

Antivirus Therapy

Za-NA-mivir and Osel-NA-mivir(oseltamivir)>>>both are Neuro-Aminidase inhibitors
They inhibit Influenza A and B Neuro-Aminidase(clips off sialic acids, thus aiding in release of virus).
Clinical use: prophylaxis mainly, but may decrease duration of flu symptoms by 2-3 days.
Side effects: nausea and vomiting

Saturday, June 02, 2007

Cholera Toxin

Architecture of the cholera toxin (CT) AB5 heterohexamer which is very closely related to the heat labile enterotoxin (LT) from enterotoxigenic E. coli.

Renal cell carcinoma

Renal cell carcinoma=Clear cell carcinoma=Grawitz's tumor